Taxonomic list of infraspecific names published for Parnassius apollo (Linnaeus, 1758) within the Iberian Peninsula


Part I: Subspecific names and names suggested for altitudinal forms


Baetic System (Sistema Bético)


Parnassius apollo nevadensis Oberthür, 1891
Original description (OD): Oberthür, C. 1891. Lépidoptères du genre Parnassius. Etudes d'Entomologie, 14: 1-18, pl. 1-3. (See p. 5, no figures.)
Original combination:Parnassius Apollo, LIN. Var. Nevadensis, OBTHR.” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Sierra-Nevada” [OD]
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [1], Glaßl [2], and Möhn [3].

Parnassius apollo gadorensis Rougeot & Capdeville, 1969
Original description (OD): Rougeot, P.-C. and Capdeville, P. 1969. Nouvelles remarques sur les Apollons d'Espagne [Papilionidae]. Alexanor, 6(1): 24-32. (See p. 26.)
Original combination: Parnassius apollo ssp. gadorensis Rougeot & Capdeville, 1969 [4]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Sierra de Gador (Almeria), 2.000 m” [4]
Status: Capdeville [1] classified gadorensis under nevadensis as “sous-race/Unter-Rasse”. Möhn [3] treated gadorensis separately but he mentioned that it was very closely related to nevadensis and filabricus and it could be a “semi-subspecies”.  Distinct subspecies according to Glaßl [2].

Parnassius apollo filabricus de Sagarra, 1933
Original description (OD): de Sagarra, I. 1933. Nova raça del Parnassius Apollo LINN. (LÈP. RHOP.). Treballs del Museu de Ciéncies Naturals de Barcelona, 11(6): 1-8. (See p. 3, Pl., Fig. No.1-No.4)
Original combination:Parnassius Apollo filabricus, Mihi” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “a la Serra dells Filabres (Província de Almeria)” [OD]
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [1] and Glaßl [2]. Möhn [3] treated filabricus separately but he mentioned that it was very closely related to nevadensis and it could be a "semi-subspecies". Moreover, he pointed out that there were hardly any differences between these butterflies.

P. a. filabricus: plate from OD
Type material of P. a. filabricus, image reproduced from [OD]. The original captions ar as follows: "N.o 1. ♂, Sierra de los Filabres, VI-1931 (E. Gros legit) (tipus, n.o 325 de la Col. del Mus. de Biol. de Barcelona).- N. 2. ♀, Sierra de los Filabres, VI-1931 (E. Gros legit) (paratipus, n.o 326 de la Col. del Mus. de Biol. de Barcelona). - N.o 3. ♂, Sierra de los Filabres, VI-1931(E. Gros legit). - N.o 4. ♀, Sierra de los Filabres, VI-1931.(E. Gros legit) (N.os 327 i 328 respectivament, exemplars de la sèrie típica de la Col. del Mus. de Biol. de Barcelona)."

Parnassius apollo mariae Capdeville & Rougeot, 1970 (imprint 1969)
Original description (OD): Capdeville, P. and Rougeot, P.-C. 1970 [imprint 1969, published 26.2.1970]. Une nouvelle sous-espéce Ibérique de Parnassius apollo (Linné) [Lep. Papilionidae]. Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 74(7/8): 200. (See p. 200)
Original combination:Parnassius apollo mariae n. subsp.” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Sierra de Maria (Prov. Almeria) [...] 1600m” [OD]
Notes: The exact date of publication of the respective original description is 26.2.1970 when the issue 7/8 of the 74th [1969] volume of Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France was published. However, literature dealing with P. apollo, including the crucial works [1-3], does not reflect this fact and cites erroneously the year 1969 instead of 1970.
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [1], Glaßl [2], and Möhn [3].

Central System (Sistema Central)


Parnassius apollo escalerae Rothschild, 1909
Original description (OD): Rothschild, W. 1909. Catalogue of the collection of Parnassiinae in the Tring Museum, with systematic notes. Novitates Zoologicae, 16(1): 1-20. (See p. 9, no figures.)
Original combination:P. apollo escalerae subsp. nov.” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “San Ildefonso, Segovia, Spain” [OD]
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [5], Glaßl [2], and Möhn [3].

Parnassius apollo guadarramensis Fruhstorfer, 1909
Original description (OD): Fruhstorfer, H. 1909. Neues über Parnassius apollo L. Entomlogische Zeitschrift, 23(34): 150-151. (See p. 151, no figures.)
Original combination:Parn. apollo guadarramensis nov. subsp.” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Sierra de Guadarrama, nö[r]dlich von Madrid” [OD]
Status: It is synonym of escalerae according to Glaßl [2] and Capdeville (“synonyme pur et simple/ein reines Synonym”) [5]. P. a. guadarramensis is treated separately by Möhn [3] but he mentioned that it is very similar to escalerae and wyatti and that guadarramensis could be either identical or "semi-subspecies".

Parnassius apollo wyatti Rougeot & Capdeville, 1968
Original description (OD): Rougeot, P.-C. and Capdeville, P. 1968. Nouvelles observations sur Parnassius apollo L. en Espagne [Papilionidae]. Alexanor, 5(7): 289-296. (See p. 293)
Original combination: Parnassius apollo escalerae f. alt. wyatti Rougeot & Capdeville, 1968 [4]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “sud du Puerto de Guadarrama” [4]
Status:  Capdeville [5] classified wyatti under escalerae as “d'une forme caractéristique des basses altitudes/eine charakteristische Form der tieferen Lagen”. It was given as a synonym of escalerae by Glaßl [2] who treated wyatti as "forma altitudinis" of escalerae and described the differences in wing pattern and different altitudinal ranges of escalerae s. str. and wyatti.

Parnassius apollo graellsi Fernández & Expósito, 1996
Original description (OD): Fernández-Vidal, E.H. and Expósito-Hermosa. 1996. Una nueva subespecie ibérica de Parnassius apollo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, Parnassiinae). Shilap. Revista de lepidopterología, 24(94): 157-164. (See p. 157.)
Original combination: Parnassius apollo graellsi
Type locality (TL):
    La Serrota, Ávila [6]
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [5] and Glaßl [2].

South-eastern ranges of the Iberian System (Sistema Ibérico)


Parnassius apollo hispanicus Oberthür, 1909
Original description (OD): Oberthür, C. 1909. VI Notes pour servir à établir la Faune Française et Algérienne des Lépidoptères. Et́udes de lépitoptérologie comparée, 3: 101-415, Pl. XI, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX, XXIII, XXIV, XXV, XXVI. (See p. 116, no figures.)
Original combination:Parnassius Apollo, Linn. [...] race [...] hispanicus” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Sierra-Alta, près Albarracin, dans l'Espagne centrale” [OD]
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [5], Glaßl [2], and Möhn [3].

Parnassius apollo navasi Bryk, 1934
Original description (OD): Bryk, F. 1934. Parnassiologische Studien aus England. Parnassiana, 3(1-2): 27-28. (See p. 28.)
Original combination: Parnassius apollo subsp. navasi Bryk, 1934 [4]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Aragonien, Orihuela del Tremedal” [4]
Status: It is synonym of hispanicus according to Capdeville (“synonyme pur et simple/ein reines Synonym”) [5], Glaßl [2], and Möhn [3].

Parnassius apollo nichollae Rougeot & Capdeville, 1972
Original description (OD): Rougeot, P.-C. and Capdeville, P. 1972. Description d'une nouvelle sous-espèce d'Apollon espagnol [Papilionidae]. Alexanor, 7(5): 204-206. (See p. 206.)
Original combination: Parnassius apollo ssp. nichollae Rougeot & Capdeville, 1972 [4]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Sierra de Javalambre, province de Teruel, 1 500-1 600 m” [4]
Status: Capdeville [5] classified nichollae under hispanicus as “sous-race/Unter-Rasse”. Glaßl [2] treated nichollae as distinct subspecies. Möhn [3] classified nichollae, germainae, and hispanicus under “a. hispanicus-Gruppe” and mentioned that they could be either closely related sspp. or the former ones were only “semi-subspecies” of hispanicus.

Parnassius apollo germainae Rougeot & Capdeville, 1972
Original description (OD): Rougeot, P.-C. and Capdeville, P. 1972. Bilan de six années de recherches sur les races ibériques de Parnassius apollo [Papilionidae]. Alexanor, 7(6): 243-251. (See p. 247.)
Original combination: Parnassius apollo ssp. germainae Rougeot & Capdeville, 1972 [4]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Sierra de Gudar [...] environs de Teruel, [...] volant à une altitude relativement basse (800 à 1.300 m environ)” [4]
Status: Capdeville [5] classified germainae under hispanicus as “sous-race/Unter-Rasse”. Glaßl [2] treated germainae as distinct subspecies. Möhn [3] classified nichollae, germainae, and hispanicus under “a. hispanicus-Gruppe” and mentioned that they could be either closely related sspp. or the former ones were only semi-subspecies of hispanicus.

North-western ranges of the Iberian System (Sistema Ibérico)


Parnassius apollo laufferi Bryk, 1923
Original description (OD): Bryk, F. 1923. Parnassiana. y) Eine neue spanische Apollorasse. Societas Entomologica, 38(8): 29-30. (See p. 29.)
Original combination: Parnassius apollo L. var. laufferi Bryk, 1923 [4]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Umgebung von Zaragoza” [4]
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [5], Glaßl [2], and Möhn [3].

Parnassius apollo manley Wyatt, 1964
Original description (OD): Wyatt, C. 1964. Eine neue Rasse von Parnassius apollo L. aus Nordspanien. Zeitschrift der Wiener Entomologischen Gesellschaft 49(11/12): 154-156; pl. 17. (See p. 154. and pl. 17, fig. 1 and 2)
Original combination:Parnassius apollo manleyi ssp. nov.” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Sierra Mencilla, 50 km südöstlich von Burgos, 1750-1900 m” [OD]
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [5], Glaßl [2], and Möhn [3].

Type material of P. a. manley
Type material of P. a. manley, image reproduced from [OD].

Eastern parts of the Cantabrian Mountains (Cordillera Cantábrica) including south-eastern regions transitive to the Iberian System


Parnassius apollo aizpuruae Goméz-Bustillo & Fernández Rubio, 1971
Original description (OD): Gómez Bustillo, M.R.G. and Fernández Rubio, F. 1971. Revisión morfológica y geográfica del parnassius apollo (linneo, 1758), en la Península Ibérica (Lep. Papilionidae). Publicación (Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales Aranzadi). Vol. 20. Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales Aranzadi. (See p. 15.)
Original combination: Parnassius apollo aizpuruae
Type locality (TL):
    Apellánziz, Monte San Cristóbal, 1055m [2]
Status: Capdeville [5] classified aizpuruae under lessei. He wrote that aizpuruae was morphologically related to both lessei and marteni and suggested that it could be treated as "sous-race/Unter-Rasse" based on its geographic isolation. Distinct subspecies according to Glaßl [2]. Möhn [3] treated aizpuruae separately but according to him aizpuruae, odriozolae, and lessei are very closely related being only "semi-subspecies".

Parnassius apollo odriozolae Goméz-Bustillo & Fernández Rubio, 1971
Original description (OD): Gómez Bustillo, M.R.G. and Fernández Rubio, F. 1971. Revisión morfológica y geográfica del parnassius apollo (linneo, 1758), en la Península Ibérica (Lep. Papilionidae). Publicación (Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales Aranzadi). Vol. 20. Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales Aranzadi. (See p. 13.)
Original combination: Parnassius apollo odriozolae
Type locality (TL):
    Monte de Aitzgorri, Collado de Perú-Saroy, 1200m  [2]
Status: Capdeville [5] classified odriozolae under lessei. He wrote that odriozolae was morphologically related to both lessei and marteni and suggested that it could be treated as "sous-race/Unter-Rasse" based on its geographic isolation. Distinct subspecies according to Glaßl [2]. Möhn [3] treated odriozolae separately but he mentioned that odriozolae was either identical to lessei or it was only "semi-subspecies".

Parnassius apollo lessei Rougeot & Capdeville, 1968
Original description (OD): Rougeot, P.-C. and Capdeville, P. 1968. Nouvelles observations sur Parnassius apollo L. en Espagne [Papilionidae]. Alexanor, 5(7): 289-296. (See p. 296.)
Original combination: Parnassius apollo ssp. lessei Rougeot & Capdeville, 1968 [7]
Type locality (TL):
    Sierra de Andia [7]
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [5], Glaßl [2], and Möhn [3].

Parnassius apollo marteni Eisner, 1956
Original description (OD): Eisner, C. 1956. Parnassiana nova: VIII. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 5). Zoologische Mededelingen, 34(10): 155-172, Taf. I-II. (See p. 166, and pl. II, Fig. 1-3)
Original combination:P. apollo L. [...] subsp. marteni (subsp. nova)” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Berge zwischen Burgos und Miranda 1200 m, Prov. Burgo” [OD]
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [5], Glaßl [2], and Möhn [3].

Type material of P. a. marteni
Type material of P. a. marteni, image reproduced from [OD]. The original captions are as follows: Fig. 1. Parnassius apollo subsp. marteni Eisner, ♂, Holotype, Prov.Burgos, Berge zwischen Burgos und Miranda, 1200 m, Anf. VII . 1953, leg. Dr. Marten., Fig. 2. Parnassius apollo subsp. marteni Eisner, ♀, Allotype, Prov. Burgos, Berge zwischen Burgos und Miranda, 1200 m, Anf. VII . 1953, leg. Dr.Marten., Fig. 3. Parnassius apollo subsp. marteni Eisner, ♂, Paratype, f. quincunx + ernestinae n.c., Prov. Burgos, Berge zwischen Burgos und Miranda, 1200 m, Anf. VII. 1953, leg. Dr. Marten.


Western and central parts of the Cantabrian Mountains (Cordillera Cantábrica)


Parnassius apollo pozazalensis Goméz-Bustillo & Fernández Rubio, 1971
Original description (OD): Gómez Bustillo, M.R.G. and Fernández Rubio, F. 1971. Revisión morfológica y geográfica del parnassius apollo (linneo, 1758), en la Península Ibérica (Lep. Papilionidae). Publicación (Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales Aranzadi). Vol. 20. Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales Aranzadi. (See p. 11.)
Original combination: Parnassius apollo pozazalensis
Type locality (TL):
    Puerto de Pozazal, 1000 m [2]
Status: Capdeville [5] classified pozazalensis under marteni. According to Glaßl [2] and Möhn [3] pozazalensis is distinct subspecies.


Parnassius apollo pardoi Agenjo, 1971 (imprint 1970)
Original description (OD): Agenjo, R. 1971 [imprint 1970, published 15.3.1971]. Nuevas subespecies de ropalóceros ibéricos. Graellsia, 26: 25-36.
Original combination: Parnassius apollo pardoi
Type locality (TL):
    Santander, Spain [3]
Notes: The exact date of publication of the original description is 15.3.1971 although the volume has got imprint of 1970.
Status: Synonym of pozazalensis according to Capdeville [5], Glaßl [2], and Möhn [3].

Parnassius apollo maurilianus Fernández, 1926
Original description (OD): Fernández, A. 1926. Las razas españolas de Parnassius apollo L. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 26: 175-180. (See p. 180, no figures.)
Original combination: “[Parnassius apollo v.] maurilianus f. n.” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Palencia (Sierra del Brezo, Villafría)” [OD]
Status: Fernández had doubts regarding the possibility of description of maurilianus, writting [8]: “A pesar de la opinión contraria de un especialista autorizado, creo que no hay razón suficiente para crear otro nombre nuevo. Si a pesar de todo conviniera diferenciarlo, yo propondría para él el nombre de maurilianus f. n. [...].” Capdeville [5] classified maurilianus under ardanazi. Distinct subspecies according to Glaßl [2] and Möhn [3].

Parnassius apollo ardanazi Fernández, 1926
Original description (OD): Fernández, A. 1926. Las razas españolas de Parnassius apollo L. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 26: 175-180. (See p. 176, no figures.)
Original combination:Parnassius apollo v. ardanazi f. n.” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “región de Potes, en los Picos de Europa”, “Espinama, Puerto de Aliva, y otros puntos de la región de Potes (Santander)” [OD]
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [5], Glaßl [2], and Möhn [3].

Parnassius apollo kricheldorffi Eisner, 1928
Original description (OD): Eisner, C. 1928. Eine neue spanische apollo-Rasse, Parnassius apollo forma kricheldorffi (m.). Internationale entomologische Zeitschrift, 22(33): 309-311.
Original combination:Parnassius apollo forma kricheldorffi (m.)” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    Sierra de Peña Labra und Riano [2]
Status: Synonym of ardanazi according to Capdeville [5] and Glaßl [2]. The same synonymy given by Möhn [3] who wrote that the type locality of kricheldorffi is inside the range of ardanazi. However, Möhn also gave the distinct altitudinal ranges of ardanazi and kricheldorffi, that are 1100-1450 m and 1800-2000 m, respectively. The population designated as kricheldorfii might be a high alpine form of P. apollo within the mentioned region.

Parnassius apollo asturiensis Pagenstecher, 1909
Original description (OD): Pagenstescher. 1909. Über die Verbreitungsbezirke und die Lokalformen von Parnassius apollo L. Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde, 62: 116-210, Taf. VII-VIII. (See p. 207, no figures.)
Original combination:Parn. apollo asturiensis” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL was not specified in the original description, only the source of specimens employed for the description was given: “Mit diesem Namen glaube ich eine Lokalform bezeichnen zu sollen, welche Herr Kricheldorff in diesem Frühjahr in Puppenform versandte und vor der ich 2 ♂♂ und 1 ♀ besitze”
    The specimens came from Puerto de Pajares Glaßl [2].
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [5], Glaßl [2], and Möhn[3].

Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées)


Parnassius apollo aragonicus Bryk, 1914
Original description (OD): Bryk, F. 1914. Referat. Charles Oberthür : A propos des Races géographiques de Parnassius Apollo. Societas entomologica, 29(7): 27-29. (See p. 28, Fig. 1 and 2)
Original combination:Parnassius Apollo [...] subsp. aragonicus” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Aragonien (alta Arragon)” [OD]
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [5] and by Glaßl [2] although the latter wrote that the recognition of six P. apollo sspp. within Pyrenees was controversial due to hardly any geographic separation of the respective populations. Distinct subspecies according to Möhn [3].

Type of P. a. aragonicus male Type material of P. a. aragonicus female
Type material of P. a. aragonicus,image reproduced from [OD]. The original captions are as follows: Fig. 1. Parnassius Apollo L. ♂, subsp. aragonicus Bryk (Type: Koll. Bryk)., Fig. 2. Parnassius Apollo L. ♀, subsp. aragonicus Bryk ab. Herrichi Stich. (Type : Koll. Bryk).”

Parnassius apollo pyrenaicus Harcourt-Bath, 1896
Original description (OD): Harcourt-Bath, W. 1896. The Geographical Varieties of Parnassius apollo. Entomologist, 29: 331. (no figures)
Original combination:Parnassius apollo [...] geographical variety [...] pyrenaica” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Pyrenees” [OD]
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [5], Glaßl [2], and Möhn [3]. It is the oldest name among the six P. apollo taxa published for Pyrenees.

Parnassius apollo ossalensis Marquant, 1959
Original description (OD): Marquant, R.M. 1959. Une nouvelle race de Parnassius apollo Linné: P. apollo race ossalensis mihi. Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon, 28(2): 51-52. (no figures)
Original combination:P. apollo race ossalensis Mihi” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Col d'Aubisque, 1 .700 mètres” [OD]
Status: Capdeville [5] classified ossalensis under pyrenaicus. Glaßl [2] treated as distinct subspecies but he wrote that the recognition of six P. apollo sspp. within Pyrenees was controversial due to hardly any geographic separation of the respective populations. Distinct subspecies according to Möhn [3].

Parnassius apollo antijesuita Bryk, 1912
Original description (OD): Bryk, F. 1912. Parnassiana IV. Societas entomologica, 27(5): 26-27. (Fig. 1.)
Original combination:Parnassius antijesuita nov. subsp. m.” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Figuerras (Cataluña)” [OD]
Status: Distinct subspecies according to Capdeville [5], Glaßl [2], and Möhn [3]. However, Glaßl wrote that the recognition of six P. apollo sspp. within Pyrenees was controversial due to hardly any geographic separation of the respective populations.

Parnassius apollo portensis Rütimeyer, 1942
Original description (OD): Rütimeyer, E. 1942. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Makrolepidopterenfauna der Ostpyrenaeen. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen entomologischen Gesellschaft, 18: 428-445. (See p. 431.)
Type locality (TL):
    Porté, östlich Andorra, Ost-Pyrenäen [3]
Status: According to Capdeville [5] only "sous-race/Unter-Rasse" of antijesuita. Glaßl [2] treated portensis separately but he wrote that the recognition of six P. apollo sspp. within Pyrenees was controversial due to hardly any geographic separation of the respective populations. Given separately by Möhn [3] but he mentioned that portensis was probably identical to chrysophorus.

Parnassius apollo chrysophorus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Original description (OD): Fruhstorfer, H. 1921. Neue u. interessante Parnassius apollo Rassen. Entomologischer Anzeiger, 1(6): 65-66. (See p. 65, for fig. the following reference was given: “Parn. apollo pyrenaicus Oberth. part. Lep. Comp. 1913 p. 51, t. 200 f. 1886/87. taf. 201 fig. 1888-1890.“)
Original combination:Parn. apollo chrysophorus subspec. nova” [OD]
Type locality (TL):
    TL according to original reference: “Spanische Südpyrenäen [...] Vernet les Bain” [OD]
Status: According to Capdeville [5] only "sous-race/Unter-Rasse" of antijesuita. Glaßl [2] treated chrysophorus separately but he wrote that the recognition of six P. apollo sspp. within Pyrenees was controversial due to hardly any geographic separation of the respective populations. Distinct subspecies according to Möhn [3].


References
1.    Capdeville, P. 1979. Les Races géographiques de Parnassius apollo. Vol. 3. Sciences Nat.
2.    Glaßl, H. 2005. Parnassius apollo: Seine unterarten. 2. ed: Digital Print Group, Erlangen.
3.    Möhn, E. 2005. Papilionidae XII: Parnassius apollo. III Text. Schmetterlinge der Erde, Tagfalter, ed. E. Bauer and T. Frankenbach. Vol. 23. Goecke & Evers, Keltern.
4.    Haeuser, C.L., Holstein, J., and Steiner, A. The Global Butterfly Information System. 2005 [last update 05.02.2014]; Available from: http://www.globis.insects-online.de.
5.    Capdeville, P. 1979. Les races géographiques de Parnassius apollo. Vol. 2. Sciences Nat.
6.    Fernández, J. 1996. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Graellsia, 52: 163-215.
7.    Beccaloni, G., Scoble, M., Kitching, I., Simonsen, T., Robinson, G., Pitkin, B., Hine, A., and Lyal, C.E. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. 2003 [accessed 11 January 2015]; Available from: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex.
8.    Fernández, A. 1926. Las razas españolas de Parnassius apollo L. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 26: 175-180.